Herman is a male name made up of Germanic elements hari (army) and man (man) meaning “army man”. It’s also a surname derived from the given name.

Origin: Germanic


  • Hermann (German)
  • Hermanus (Dutch, Ancient Germanic)
  • Hariman (Ancient Germanic)
  • Hermanni (Finnish)
  • Armand (French)
  • Ármann (Icelandic)
  • Armando (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese)
  • Ermanno (Italian)
  • German (Russian)




Lisa originated as a short form of Elizabeth, a female name which comes from Hebrew ‘Elisheva meaning “my God is an oath” or “my God is abundance”. Mawu-Lisa is also the name of a creator goddess in Dahomey mythology in Benin in West Africa, sometimes described as a pair of twins with Lisa being the male part representing the sun and Mawu the female part representing the moon. Lisa is also a surname.

Origin: Hebrew



Kai is a name with various origins and meanings:

  • it’s a Hawaiian unisex name meaning “sea”;
  • it’s also a Japanese name with a variety of meanings depending on the kanji used, such as: (海) “sea, ocean”; (貝) “shellfish”; (快) “cheerful, pleasant, agreeable, comfortable”; (戒) “commandment”, and other various meanings; as well as also being a compound of names like Kaito and Kairi;
  • Kai is also a Japanese surname written with the kanji (甲斐) meaning “armor; carapace, shell; high (voice);  A grade; first class; former; instep + beautiful; patterned);
  • it’s a Dutch and German surname, a topographic name for someone who lived by the quayside; the name derives from Dutch kaai meaning “quay”;
  • it’s a Chinese male name with various meanings depending on the characters used such as: (凯) “victorious, triumphant”; (開) “open, start”; and (啟) “start, begin, open”;
  • it’s also a Frisian short form of names such as Gerhard (the German, Dutch, and Scandinavian form of Gerard meaning “brave/hardy spear”), Nicolaas (the Polish form of Nicholas meaning “victory of the people”), Cornelis, the Dutch form of Cornelius possibly derived from Latin meaning “horn”), or Kajetan (the Polish form of Gaetano, the Italian form of Latin Caietanus meaning “from Caieta”, also spelled Gaeta, the name of a town in Italy; or Kaimbe, an Old Frisian name meaning “warrior”;
  • it may also be a variant spelling of Cai, the Welsh form of Kay, the name of King Arthur’s foster-brother and seneschel in Arthurian legend; it may possibly be a Welsh form of Gaius, a Roman given name of uncertain meaning though it’s been linked to Latin gaudere meaning “to rejoice” though it may also be derived from an older Etruscan source of unknown meaning;
  • Kai is also a word in several languages: it means “and” in Greek; “quay, pier” in Estonian; “food” in Maori; and I’ve also seen it as possibly meaning “willow tree” in Navajo;
  • it also seems to be an African male name although I couldn’t find a specific meaning behind it, though it may be a title or a prefix meaning “king” or “king of kings”;
  • Kai is also the name of several place names.

Origin: Hawaiian, Japanese, Dutch, Chinese, Latin, Greek, Estonian, Maori, Navajo, African


  • Kaj (Swedish, Danish, Norwegian)
  • Caj (Swedish, Danish, Norwegian)
  • Cai (Swedish, Danish, Norwegian,
  • Kay (Frisian, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, English)


Female forms:

  • Kay (English)



Hella is a variant form of Helga, the feminine form of Helge, a Scandinavian name meaning “holy, blessed” from Old Norse heilagr, as well as also being an American slang term meaning “very, extremely”, a contraction of the phrase hell of a.

Origin: Old Norse


  • Helga (Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, German, Dutch, Hungarian, Ancient Scandinavian)
  • Helle (Danish)
  • Olga (Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Latvian, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, Czech, Slovene, Serbian, Bulgarian)
  • Olha (Ukrainian)
  • Helka (Finnish)
  • Aila (Finnish)
  • Áile (Sami)
  • Aili (Finnish)


Male forms:

  • Helge (Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German)
  • Helgi (Ancient Scandinavian)
  • Oleg (Russian)
  • Oleh (Ukrainian)



Caroline is the French form of Carolina, the feminine form of Carolus which is the Latin form of Charles, derived from Germanic Karl from Proto-Germanic *karilaz meaning “free man”, used to refer to men who were not thralls or servants but who still lived at the bottom of society so it connotes the idea of a free man.

Nicknames: Carrie

Origin: Proto-Germanic



  • Carolyn (English)
  • Karolyn (English)
  • Carolin (German)
  • Carlyn (English)
  • Carolina (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, English, Swedish)
  • Karolina (Polish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Hungarian, Slovene, Croatian, Macedonian, Lithuanian, German)
  • Karoline (German, Danish, Norwegian)
  • Carolien (Dutch)
  • Charlize (Afrikaans)
  • Carla (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Catalan, English, German, Dutch)
  • Karla (German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Croatian)
  • Karolína (Czech)
  • Karoliina (Finnish)
  • Karola (Hungarian, German)
  • Carola (Italian, German, Dutch, Swedish)
  • Charlene (English)
  • Charlotte (English, French, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch)
  • Carol (English)


Male forms:

  • Carolus (Latin)
  • Karolos (Greek)
  • Charles (English, French)
  • Karl (German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, English, Finnish, Ancient Germanic)
  • Carl (German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, English)
  • Carles (Catalan)
  • Karlo (Croatian)
  • Carlo (Italian)
  • Karel (Dutch, Czech, Slovene)
  • Karol (Polish, Slovak, Slovene)
  • Kaarle (Finnish)
  • Kaarlo (Finnish)
  • Kale (Hawaiian)
  • Károly (Hungarian)
  • Séarlas (Irish)
  • Sjarel (Limburgish)
  • Karolis (Lithuanian)
  • Carlos (Spanish, Portuguese)
  • Carol (Romanian)
  • Siarl (Welsh)



Runa has several possible meanings and etymologies such as:

  • it is the Scandinavian feminine form of Rune, derived from Old Norse rún meaning “secret lore” which comes from Proto-Germanic *rūnō (whisper, murmur).
  • it’s also a Latin word meaning “dart” or “javelin”;
  • it’s also a Latvian word meaning “speech, delivery, talk”;
  • it’s also a Quechua word meaning “man, person, human being”;
  • Runa is also a Japanese female name with a variety of meanings depending on the kanji used such as “precious stone; gem; lapis lazuli + Nara; what?” (琉奈) or “precious stonel gem lapis lazuli + “moon; month” (); written in hiragana it’s るな
  • Runa is also a transliteration of Luna in Japanese written with the katakana ルナ; Luna is the Roman goddess of the moon;
  • Runa is also a Bengali female name although I couldn’t find out if it has any particular meaning in its language.

Origin: Proto-Germanic; Latin; Latvian; Quechua; Japanese


  • Rúna (Ancient Scandinavian, Icelandic)
  • Rune (English) u
  • Ruuna (Japanese)


Male forms:

  • Rune (Norwegian, Danish, Swedish) u
  • Rúni (Ancient Scandinavian, Faroese)



Heidi is the German diminutive of Adelheid, which is the German and Dutch form of Adelaide meaning “noble kind” or “noble sort” from Germanic elements adal (noble) and  heid (kind, sort, type).

Origin: Germanic


  • Heidy (English, Spanish)
  • Heida (German)
  • Adelheid (German, Dutch)
  • Adelaide (French, English, Italian, Portuguese)
  • Adalheidis (Ancient Germanic)



Arthur is the name of the legendary king of the Arthurian legends, the king of the Britons who defended against Saxon invaders. The meaning behind the name is unknown though it has often been linked to Celtic *artos meaning “bear” combined with rīxs meaning “king” meaning “bear king” or gwr (man) meaning “bear man”. The name may also be related to Artorius, a rare Roman family name of unknown etymology and meaning. Arthur is also a surname derived from the given name.

Origin: Celtic


  • Arturo (Italian, Spanish)
  • Artur (Portuguese, Galician, Catalan, Polish, Russian, German, Estonian, Swedish, Romanian, Czech)
  • Artturi (Finnish)
  • Artúr (Hungarian)
  • Artūrs (Latvian)
  • Artūras (Lithunanian)
  • Artair (Scottish)


Female forms:

  • Arthuria (English)
  • Arthurina (English)
  • Arthurine (English, French)



Ruth is a Hebrew female name of uncertain origin though the most popular theory is that it is linked to Hebrew re’ut meaning “companion” or “friend”, though other possible theories include: “refreshment”, “appearance, beauty”, and “pasture”. Ruth may also be related to Middle English word ruthe or reuth meaning “pity, compassion”, “sorrow, grief” derived from Old Norse hryggð (sorrow, grief). Ruth is also a Limburgish short form of Rutger, the Dutch form of Roger meaning “famous spear” from Germanic elements hrod (fame) and ger (spear). Ruth is also a surname.

Origin: Hebrew, Old Norse, Germanic


  • Ruthie (English)
  • Rut (Swedish, Spanish, Icelandic, Hebrew)
  • Routh (Greek)
  • Ruut (Finnish)
  • Rūta (Lithuanian)
  • Ruta (Polish)
  • Rute (Portuguese)
  • Ruf (Russian)



Irene comes from Greek Eirene meaning “peace”. In Greek mythology, Eirene is the Greek goddess of peace and the season of the spring, and is one of the Horae/Horai, goddessess of the season and later became assocoiated with order and justice. Although Irene is often pronounced eye-reen in the English-speaking world, it’s also pronounced eye-reen-ee or er-re-ne.

Origin: Ancient Greek


  • Eirene (Ancient Greek)
  • Irena (Polish, Czech, Slovene, Croatian, Serbian, Bulgarian, Dutch, Lithuanian)
  • Irina (Russian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Romanian, Finnish, Georgian)
  • Arina (Russian)
  • Irine (Georgian)
  • Iria (Portuguese, Galician)
  • Irenka (Czech and Polish diminutive of Irena)
  • Irène (French)
  • Eirini (Greek)
  • Irini (Modern Greek)
  • Irén (Hungarian)
  • Eireen (Irish)